tipos de estructuras de edificios

▷ Types of building structures

Different structures depending on the type of building

Depending on the types of buildings, different types of building structures are required. The structure is the support that resists the loads that act on it. The loads, in turn, are the elements that affect the structure and generate deformations.

The use of steel is the work of the Industrial Revolution, since previously wood or stone was used as the skeleton of buildings.

The vast majority of old buildings are half-timbered, and with modernity they were replaced by steel.

Steel is a much stronger and more durable material, and it behaves much better against fire. In addition, in the 20th century, concrete, another modern material, was used as a structural material and together they have meant a true revolution in construction.

Concepto de estructura de un edificio

Structure concept of a building

As a support that it is, the structure provides strength, stability and rigidity, necessary requirements that prevent the building from collapsing, and conducts loads from the point of application to the ground.

In this sense, types of building structures must be able to achieve equilibrium under the action of loads, and for that the structure is linked to the ground in such a way that it allows Necessary reactions that balance the actions that act on it. That is stability.

The types of buildings must have resistant structures that withstand the internal forces of the elements that compose them, without cracking or fissuring. By virtue of this, it is necessary to study the limits of the resistance of the materials to build a structure.

Stiffness, for its part, must be present in the structure so as not to deform excessively under the action of loads.

Excessive deformations are called the incorrect operation of the building, which can lead to the appearance of cracks in the partitions, or the appearance of the construction. The Technical Code defines the maximum deformations, and they must be taken into account so that the structure does not exceed them.

tipos estructuras de edificios

Types of structures of buildings

The types of buildings, as already mentioned, need different types of structure; depending on their shape and construction, the types of building structures can be:

Supporting structure

It is the set of structural elements that constitute the support of other systems, and also support themselves. Thus, the supporting structure supports the actions exerted on it and transmits them to the ground and foundations.

que es la estructura portante de un edificio

Vertical structure

It is the structure whose horizontal actions predominate over the vertical ones. The types of buildings with vertical structures are those of great height, which present a great difference between their floor area and their height.

The structure acts more like a support that is embedded in the ground than a supported column. And the higher, the pressure of the wind on it increases.

Mixed structure

It is the structure whose bearing structure is made of steel, and the screed is made of mortar or concrete on forged. In types of high-rise buildings it is more efficient because it reduces the weight of the steel structure and gives greater bending stiffness.

Stereo structure

It is also called spatial mesh, and it is the structure with three-dimensional rigidity whose elements are subjected to axial forces of compression or traction.

Estructura reticular de un edificio

Reticular structure

It is the structure that has a set of interconnected and interlocking bars that are joined with rigid knots. The bars transmit the applied loads in two directions.

This type of structure in the shape of triangles improves resistance, this technique is known as triangulation, and it is usually used especially in bridges with metal structures and types of buildings modern.

Material is saved and the weight of the structure as a whole is reduced.

Types of steel structures used for buildings

Steel structures are the most common in construction. According to the types of buildings, the constructions will have to be adapted (for industrial buildings, buildings, bridges, walkways, etc.).

Among the types of steel structures used for buildings are the following:

Lattice structures

This type of structure is one of the most common used for the construction of buildings on urban land. The structure is composed of foundations, beams, bars and columns and is used in higher buildings.

They are vertical bars that can withstand compression forces.

Estructuras entramadas de un edificio

Triangulated structures

It is the reticular structure, and it is characterized by the way the bars are arranged, in a triangular shape. It is very resistant and suitable for types of buildings such as industrial buildings or high-rise.

Vaulted structures

They are the structures used in parabolic roofs. They balance the weight of the construction, and it is used more to form arches and vaults.

Estructuras abovedadas de una construccion

Advantages of steel structures

The types of steel structures used for buildings have improved with advances in technology. A metal structure will always take up less space than a concrete one, which is a current solution to urban space problems.

On the other hand, steel structures are composed of columns on which the beams rest, and then have other elements that constitute the structural support of floors and roofs.

When we speak, then, of mixed structures, it is because they use steel columns and beams that are combined with concrete slabs or joist floors.

Ventajas de las estructuras de acero

Another advantage to the eye is that the structures are much lighter, and faster to execute. It is normal that they are used to reform an old house, in which there are wooden pillars or beams in poor condition.

Therefore, when a reform of this type is carried out, the metallic structure is much more suitable due to its lower weight, which avoids adding more weight to the building’s structure. It can be made using steel columns and beams and sheet metal floors.

But if what is being undertaken is a new work, a house, for example, the use of metal structures speeds up execution times, and although they can be more expensive than a concrete structure, it is also It is true that saving time and space affect the total costs.

In addition, the steel structure gives a modern and minimalist air and an industrial touch to any building.