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▷ Types of structures for the construction of bridges and materials used

Bridge construction companies have been an integral part of civil engineering since ancient times. Bridges not only facilitate the transportation of people and goods, but are also structures that represent human ingenuity and the overcoming of natural obstacles.

There are different types of structures used in bridge construction, each with its own characteristics and advantages. Below are some of the most common types:

Arch bridges

Arch bridges are one of the oldest structures used in bridge construction. These bridges are characterized by having a curved or arched shape that allows weight loads to be distributed along the arch, making them very efficient in terms of resistance and load capacity.

Arch bridges can be built with different materials, such as stone, concrete or steel. The choice of material will depend on the specific needs of the bridge and the surrounding conditions.

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Construction of suspension bridges

Suspension bridges are another type of structure commonly used in bridge construction. These bridges consist of a series of cables suspended between two towers that support a loading platform.

The main characteristic of suspension bridges is their ability to cross great distances without the need for intermediate pillars.

This flexibility allows suspension bridges to be used in locations where pillar construction would be difficult or expensive. Suspension cables are typically made of high-strength steel, while towers may be constructed of reinforced concrete or steel.

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Bridges ofbeams or columns

Beam or pillar bridges are one of the simplest structures used in bridge construction.

They consist of a series of parallel beams that support the loading platform. Beam bridges are usually built with different materials, such as concrete or steel.

One of the main advantages of girder bridges is their ability to support heavy loads, making them ideal for crossing rivers or deep valleys. Steel is commonly used in the construction of girder bridges due to its high strength and durability.

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Cantilever bridges

Cantilever bridges are structures that extend from a fixed support on one side to a loading platform on the other.

These bridges are especially useful for crossing obstacles such as wide rivers or areas where piling construction would be difficult.

Cantilever bridges can be built with different materials, such as steel, reinforced concrete or even laminated wood beams. One of the main advantages of cantilever bridges is their ability to support heavy loads and their flexibility to adapt to different conditions.

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Materials used in the construction of bridges for structures

In addition to the different types of bridge structures, there are also a variety of materials commonly used in bridge construction. These materials include:

Steel

Steel is widely used in bridge construction due to its high strength and durability. It is particularly suitable for bridges that need to support heavy loads and long spans.

Concrete

Concrete is another material commonly used in bridge construction. It can be used in both arch bridges and girder bridges or even cantilever or suspension bridges.

Reinforced concrete, which combines concrete and reinforcing steel, provides greater strength and durability.

Wood or stone

Although much less common in bridge construction today, wood or stone have been used historically, and today in some places they are still built with these materials.

Wood is especially used in pedestrian bridges or in areas where a natural aesthetic appearance is sought.

In conclusion, there are different types of structures used in bridge construction, each with its own characteristics and advantages. Arch, suspension, girder and cantilever bridges are just a few examples.

The choice of the type of structure will depend on the specific needs of the bridge and the surrounding conditions. In addition, the materials used, such as steel, concrete, stone or wood, will play a fundamental role in the strength and durability of the bridge. The construction of bridges is a civil engineering challenge that has allowed humanity to overcome geographical barriers and connect different places.

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